While both flamenco and classical guitars share common roots and building methods some distinctive musical demands of each style have led to the usage of different woods, dimensions, and setups. The rich and mellow tones desired of the classical guitar were not going to cut-it for guitarists looking to accompany the cante (song) and baile (dance)of flamenco music. The guitars needed evolved into lighter, brighter instruments with a hard percussive element that could then be heard against the dancers feet and the rough flamenco voice. Spanish cypress was chosen for the back and sides of the flamenco guitar due to its abundance and that it can be worked much thinner than rosewood , providing a faster attack and less sustain . The idea of vibrancy and lightness were also applied to the internal design, which used lighter braces, and the head stock, where peg heads were kept in favor to tuning machines in order to give better balance to the light body. Some other differences in the flamenco guitars are a flatter neck angle, lower polished frets, and lower action to allow faster passages to better flow. At the same time, to provide a greater percussive, electrifying sound , as well as the use of the " Golpe " adding a tap-plate to protect against the hits, drums, and slaps on the top.
Spruce: Typically you will find spruce to have a brighter more separated tone. This lends itself nicely to multi-voiced music or baroque music as it highlights the clarity between the voices.
Cedar: A warm, round sound is how cedar is described. The blend of voices that cedar offers brings out the depth of Romantic music and is of course synonymous with the Spanish guitar.
Top: The front of the guitar where the strings are played, usually made of Cedar or Spruce.
Body & Sides: The wooden/box parts that rest on your body.
Sound hole: The hole in the middle/front where the sound comes out.
Strings: There are six of them. You pluck them to make sound/music.
Fingerboard: Where you press your left hand fingers to generate the different notes, usually made of Rosewood, Maple or Ebony, the fingerboard is subdivided by thin metal bars called frets.
Neck: The rounded piece of wood supporting the fingerboard.
Bridge: The wooden bar where the strings are attached.
Heel : Where the guitar neck connects to the body.
Nut: Small piece of bone at the beginning of the neck.
Headstock: The highest part of the guitar which houses the six machine heads used to tune the strings.
Machine heads: Tool to tune your strings , there are six machine heads, one for each string.